Friday, March 20, 2020
The History of the Freedom Riders Movement In 1961, men and women from throughout the nation arrived in Washington, D.C. to end Jim CrowÃ on interstate travel by embarking on what were called Ã¢â¬Å"Freedom Rides.Ã¢â¬ Ã On such rides, racially mixed activists traveled together throughout the Deep South- ignoring signs marked Ã¢â¬Å"for whitesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"for coloredÃ¢â¬ in buses and bus terminals. The riders endured beatings and arson attempts from white supremacist mobs, but their struggles paid off when segregationist policies on interstate bus and rail lines were struck down. Despite these achievements, the Freedom Riders arenÃ¢â¬â¢t the household names like Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr., but theyÃ¢â¬â¢re civil rights heroes nonetheless. Both Parks and King would be heralded as heroes for their roles in ending segregated bus seatingÃ in Montgomery, Ala.Ã How the Freedom Rides Got Started In the 1960 case Boynton v. Virginia, the U.S. Supreme Court declared segregation in interstate bus and rail stations unconstitutional. But the high courtÃ¢â¬â¢s ruling didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop segregation on interstate bus and rail lines in the South from persisting. Enter the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), a civil rights group. CORE sent seven blacks and six whites on two public buses headed for the South on May 4, 1961. The goal? To test the Supreme Court ruling on segregated interstate travel in the Confederate states. For two weeks, the activists planned to flout Jim Crow laws by sitting on the front of buses and in Ã¢â¬Å"whites onlyÃ¢â¬ waiting rooms in bus terminals. Ã¢â¬Å"Boarding that Greyhound bus to travel to the Deep South, I felt good. I felt happy,Ã¢â¬ Rep. John Lewis recalled during a May 2011Ã appearance on Ã¢â¬Å"The Oprah Winfrey Show.Ã¢â¬ Then a seminary student, Lewis would go on to become a U.S. congressman. During the first few days of their trip, the mixed-race group of activists traveled largely without incident. They didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have security and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need it- yet. After arriving in Atlanta on May 13, 1961, they even attended a reception hosted by the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., but the celebration took on a decidedly ominous tone when King alerted them that the Ku Klux Klan was organizing against them in Alabama. Despite KingÃ¢â¬â¢s warning, the Freedom Rides did not change their course. As expected, when they reached Alabama, their journey took a turn for the worse. A Perilous Journey On the outskirts of Anniston, Alabama, members of a white supremacist mob showed just what they thought about the Freedom Riders by bashing in their bus and slashing its tires. To boot, the Alabama Klansmen set the bus on fire and blocked the exits to trap the Freedom Riders inside. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the busÃ¢â¬â¢ fuel tank exploded that the mob dispersed and the Freedom Riders were able to escape. After a similar mob attacked the Freedom Riders in Birmingham, the U.S. Justice Department stepped in and evacuated the activists to New Orleans. The federal government did not want more harm to come to the riders. The Second Wave Due to the amount of violence inflicted on Freedom Riders, the leaders of CORE had to abandon the Freedom Rides or continue sending activists into harmÃ¢â¬â¢s way. Ultimately, CORE officials decided to send more volunteers on the rides.Ã Diane Nash, an activist who helped to organize Freedom Rides, explainedÃ to Oprah Winfrey: Ã¢â¬Å"It was clear to me that if we allowed the Freedom Ride to stop at that point, just after so much violence had been inflicted, the message would have been sent that all you have to do to stop a nonviolent campaign is inflict massive violence.Ã¢â¬ On the second wave of rides, activists journeyed from Birmingham to Montgomery, Alabama in relative peace. Once the activists touched down in Montgomery, though, a mob of more than 1,000 attacked the riders. Later, in Mississippi, Freedom Riders were arrested for entering a whites-only waiting room in a Jackson bus terminal. For this act of defiance, authorities arrested the Freedom Riders, housing them in one of MississippiÃ¢â¬â¢s most notorious correctional facilities- Parchman State Prison Farm. Ã¢â¬Å"The reputation of Parchman is that itÃ¢â¬â¢s a place that a lot of people get sent . . . and donÃ¢â¬â¢t come back,Ã¢â¬ former Freedom Rider Carol Ruth told Winfrey. During the summer of 1961, 300 Freedom Riders were imprisoned there. An Inspiration Then and Now The struggles of the Freedom Riders garnered nationwide publicity. Rather than intimidate other activists, however, the brutality the riders encountered inspired others to take up the cause. Before long, dozens of Americans were volunteering to travel on Freedom Rides. In the end, an estimated 436 people took such rides. The efforts of the Freedom Riders were finally rewarded when the Interstate Commerce Commission decided on Sept. 22, 1961, to ban segregation in interstate travel. Today, the contributions the Freedom Riders made to civil rights are the subject of a PBS documentary called Freedom Riders. In addition, in 2011, 40 students commemorated the Freedom Rides of 50 years before by boarding buses that retraced the journey of the first set of Freedom Riders.
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
The History of Aspirin and Salicin Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid is a derivative of salicylic acid. It is a mild, non-narcotic analgesic thatÃ¢â¬â¢s useful in the relief of headache as well asÃ muscle and joint aches. The drug works by inhibiting the production of body chemicals known as prostaglandins,Ã which are necessary for blood clotting andÃ for sensitizing nerve endings to pain. Early History The father of modern medicine wasÃ Hippocrates, who lived sometime between 460 B.C and 377 B.C. Hippocrates left historical records of pain relief treatments that included the use of powder made from the bark and leaves of the willow tree to help heal headaches, pains and fevers. However, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until 1829 that scientists discovered that it was a compound called salicin in willow plants that relieved the pain. In From A Miracle Drug Sophie Jourdier of the Royal Society of Chemistry wrote: It was not long before the active ingredient in willow bark was isolated; in 1828,Ã Johann Buchner, professor of pharmacy at the University of Munich, isolated a tiny amount of bitter tasting yellow, needle-like crystals, which he called salicin. Two Italians,Ã BrugnatelliÃ and Fontana, had in fact already obtained salicin in 1826, but in a highly impure form. By 1829, [French chemist]Ã Henri Leroux had improved the extraction procedure to obtain about 30g from 1.5kg of bark. In 1838,Ã Raffaele PiriaÃ [an Italian chemist] then working at the Sorbonne in Paris, split salicin into a sugar and an aromatic component (salicylaldehyde) and converted the latter, by hydrolysis and oxidation, to an acid of crystallised colourless needles, which he named salicylic acid. So while Henri LerouxÃ had extracted salicin in crystalline form for the first time, it was Raffaele PiriaÃ who succeeded in obtaining the salicylic acid in its pure state. The problem, though, was that salicylic acid was hard on the stomach and a means of buffering the compound was needed. Turning an Extract Into Medicine The first person to achieve the necessary bufferingÃ was a French chemist namedÃ Charles Frederic Gerhardt. In 1853, Gerhardt neutralized salicylic acid by buffering it with sodium (sodium salicylate) and acetyl chloride to create acetylsalicylic acid. Gerhardts product worked but he had no desire to market it and abandoned his discovery. In 1899, a German chemist namedÃ Felix Hoffmann, who worked for a German company calledÃ Bayer, rediscovered Gerhardts formula. Hoffmann made some of the formula and gave it to his father who was suffering from the pain of arthritis. The formula worked and so Hoffmann then convinced Bayer to market the new wonder drug. Aspirin was patented on February 27, 1900. The folks at Bayer came up with the name Aspirin. It comes from the Ã¢â¬Å"A in acetyl chloride, the spir in spiraea ulmaria (the plant they derived the salicylic acid from) and the Ã¢â¬Å"inÃ¢â¬ was a then familiar name ending for medicines. Before 1915, Aspirin was first sold as a powder.Ã That year, the first Aspirin tablets were made. Interestingly, the names Aspirin and Heroin were once trademarks belonging to Bayer. After Germany lost World War I, Bayer was forced to give up both trademarks as part of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Career Advancement in Oilfield Oil & Gas Trucking to Controller, Operations Manager or General Manager - Research Paper Example In a thesis statement, career advancement has been currently experienced in the oilfields as justified by the upgrading practice of the personnel from, the gas tracking level to the controller and finally to the uppermost rank of operations manager. There are various elements that have contributed to attainment of career advancement in the oilfields. The following are among the factors to consider in advancing a career from a gas trucker to a general manger positionq2q2 in oilfield service businesses: Generally, it is the responsibility of general managers to translate executive management goals into plans of action and delegate them to other employees (Kerzner 23). Like other industries, in oilfield service businesses, general managers are required to carry out duties such as developing sales strategies and analyzing weak points of competitors and strategizing on how to take over. In addition, they are also required to hire management and service staff, and prepare plans and programs that would enable the company attain its objectives (Worldwideworker.com p2). Therefore, to achieve these duties bestowed to them, managers must have good level of education in the field and vast knowledge in management (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin and Cardy 20). In oilfield service businesses, General Managers usually have degrees in science or engineering. However, since the oilfield companies just as any other businesses are established with the aim of making profits, most of these companies usually prefer hiring applicants with bachelor degrees in liberal arts and masters degree in business administration. In addition, courses in management, finance, accounting and industrial relations can also be an added advantage to be considered for a management post. Apart from education, experience is also a major factor that is usually considered. Oilfield service businesses usually prefer applicants who have about 8 or 10 years of directly related
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Green Business - Assignment Example I have decided to install some renewable source of power that does not require any fossil fuels such as coal, petrol or diesel. Also by using such renewable source of power, I will help reduce the load of CO2 from the environment. For renewable source of energy, it has been decided to install solar PV cell based system that not only meets my energy requirements but will produce surplus electricity that will be sold at the prevailing rates to the electrical grid. The advantage is that the PV based solar energy is covered for feed-in-tariffs for the generation of renewable power and that is how this project can generate decent revenue even after meeting captive requirements. Producing and Selling Green Energy The technology selected is Solar PV cell based with inverter, batteries and meters. PV cells or in scientific world known as photovoltaic is heart of the system. The benefit with such technology is that it is eco-friendlyÃ¢â¬âwithout any harmful effects on environment. It requi res only one-time capital investment and there is no operating cost involved. Maintenance cost is hardly any except batteries that need to be replaced only after 3-4 year period. The photovoltaic cells are made of silicon microchips or wafers and due to their unique property they absorb solar energy to produce electrical energy. Higher the solar energy, more the electrical current or power it can produce. The direct current can be converted into AC current by the equipment called inverter and the power can be stored in the array of batteries. A typical PV based solar energy system can be shown as per the following diagram. Source: http://homepower.com/basics/solar/#MainDCDisconnect Project Report for PV based Solar System Installation Capacity- 10kWh Name of the Company Producing PV Solar System 1. Freesource Energy, UK 2. Techno Sun, UK 3. First Solar, US 4. Solar Europa, UK The plan is to produce 10 kW-hour of renewable source of energy with captive consumption of 5kW-hour and bal ance will be sold to the electric grid at the prevailing rates. Costs The current cost of 2.77kW-hour system is found to be ?11,000 (including VAT at 5%). The investment required for 10kW-hour system is approximately ? 45,000. (Solar Electricity) Consumption The Production unit will consume 2kW and balance 8 kW will be sold to the grid through a scheme called feed-in-tariffs. Understanding Feed-in-Tariffs The Feed-in-Tariffs are available to those who own and produce renewable source of energy. The tariffs for Solar PV based unit for 4-10kW production unit are 37.8p/kWh of energy. The benefit is available for the duration of 25 years. (Tariff LevelsÃ¢â¬ ¦ 2011) Revenue Calculation A) By Selling Surplus Power The surplus power that is available is 8kW and that can be sold to grid. Considering daily production for about 12 hours, the per day revenue will incur 37.8?8?12 =?36.28 Considering 150 days of solar energy production in a year (number of days solar energy available) it will g enerate revenue of 150?36.28= ?5443 B) Saving Incurred by Captive Consumption Captive consumption is again 2kW and since no operating cost is involved to produce it, whatever payment is made in buying grid electricity is now saved. Considering conventional average grid electricity charges of 10p per kWh, and working of 10 hours in a day, per day saving comes to 2?10?10=?2 Again, assuming available benefit for 150 days (number of days s
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Disproving the Theories of Evolution Abstract Natural selection is one of the numerous theories that attempt to explain the evolution of living things from their primitive origins to the more advanced organisms existing today. At its core, this theory supports the notion that only the strongest organisms survive in a changing environment while their weak counterparts die off. Nevertheless, various circles regard the evolutionary theory by natural selection as practically impossible. Since its conception, proponents of the theory have defended it with the help of serious misinformation and propaganda. However, the theory of evolution has been discredited entirely as being scientifically invalid by such fields as paleontology, genetics, biochemistry, and microbiology. Numerous findings continue to reveal that evolution never happened, is devoid of tangible scientific evidence, and is incompatible with the truth. One such area is the creationist perspective of the origin of life and the universe. Creationism provides the indication that the universe is the work of an Omniscient Creator. Scientific communitys Opposition Evolution has been and continues to be not only one of the most widely debated issue but also one of the most controversial. Some quarters have a serious problem with calling the Darwinist evolution a theory for the reason that it lacks testable explanations for observable occurrences (Isaak). The Darwinian theory of evolution postulates the idea that the planetary species arose through descent with progression and modification from a single common ancestor by the process of natural selection. While this presumption may contain some element of truth, it has not received complete acceptance across the entire spectrum of the society since evolutionary ideas first came to prominence in the early parts of the 19th century (Luskin). The first opposition to its tenets comes mainly from the scientific community, which has not found any past or present scientific evidence to validate the claims of Darwin. Moreover, todays criticisms and denials also come from all quarters in various forms su ch as creationism, neo-creationism, and intelligent design. Even though several points exist on either side of the creationism versus evolution argument, notwithstanding the gaps on both sides of the divide, it becomes apparent that the theory of evolution has some serious fundamental flaws. Creationism is the belief that concept and design require a creator (Sarfati and Mathews). When applied to detecting design in the universe and life, this principle becomes a more reasonable explanation to believe in a higher power as the Creator or Designer of both (Sarfati and Mathews). Unlike the concept of evolution, which remains unproven and continues to lack even the slightest experimental or observational support, the creationist argument is sound because it argues against a set of misunderstandings about evolution that people are right to consider ludicrous (Fodor and Piattelli-Palmarini). For this reason, a large part of the society is likely to embrace creationism. Moreover, various religious denominations already propagate the belief in a higher power, making creationism more intellectually and socially palatable to a majority of people, both scholars and lay audiences. A related issue is the tendency of individuals to identify with things, beliefs, or concepts that exemplify the best of humanity or portray humans as special. In this regard, creationism hits the nail on the head as it conceives the advent of humankind as a deliberate, personal, well-thought out, and loving process. In contrast, evolution paints a grim picture of a random, impersonal, and d etached process that does not appeal to the moral and spiritual sensibilities of many people, hence its unpopularity. The first claim against natural selection, the central premise upon which the theory of evolution rests, is that it lacks the power to be responsible for all the variability seen in all the innumerable forms of life. A close inspection shows that neither natural selection nor mutation has any evolutionary force or gives the slightest support to the notion that living things can evolve and gradually turn into a new species (Yahya). Natural selection predicts the survival of organisms possessing the most appropriate characteristics for their natural habitats and the extinction of those that lack the advantages (Rennie). For instance, in a herd of deer threatened by wolves, those who run fastest survive and those who do not run swiftly are hunted down and eliminated resulting in a herd of swift-running deer. However, no matter how long the process lasts, the deer will a lways remain a deer and never another species. For that reason, natural selection cannot cause the development of a new species, much less new life forms (Yahya). Competition for survival The second criticism of evolution driven by the process of natural selection concerns the assertion that the living world is in a perpetual competition for survival, something Darwinism calls the survival of the fittest (Yahya). Several reliable observations continue to reveal that organisms, particularly those at more advanced levels such as humans and dolphins display solidarity and social behavior that can be defined as cooperation. Therefore, the survival of the fittest might not be any more superior or significant than the survival of the luckiest (Yahya). The weakness of evidence The third criticism against evolution is that several lines of evidence for Darwinian evolution and common ancestry are weak. Firstly, there is the failure of development of biology in explaining why vertebrate embryos start diverging from the very beginning of development. Secondly, DNA and molecular evidence paint conflicting pictures about the grand tree of life (Luskin). Lastly, available fossil records do not provide proof for the Darwinian evolution (Luskin). The evidence of small-scale changes commonly paraded by evolutionists such as the slight variations in the color of wings of peppered moths or the size of finch beaks are isolated cases of microevolution and are not evidential proof for macroevolution (Rennie). Conclusion Even though evolutionists portray the theory of evolution as a scientific fact, various findings for the several years separating Charles Darwin and the present day has utterly disapproved this theory. Darwinism is inconsistent with the truth, and its principles of natural selection and mutation have been shown to lack any evolutionary power to create new species. The more the details of nature and scientific studies have been revealed, the more extraordinary characteristics of life in its diversity have been discovered that can never be explained in terms of natural selection. Works Cited Fodor, Jerry, and Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini. Survival of the Fittest Theory: Darwinisms Limits. New Scientist, 3 Feb. 2010, www.newscientist.com/article/mg20527466.100-survival-of-the-fittest-theory-darwinisms-limits?full=true. Accessed 20 Feb. 2017. Isaak, Mark. Five Major Misconceptions About Evolution. TalkOrigins Archive: Exploring the Creation/Evolution Controversy, 1 Oct. 2003, www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-misconceptions.html. Accessed 20 Feb. 2017. Luskin, Casey. Punctuated Equilibrium and Patterns from the Fossil Record. Intelligent Design and Evolution Awareness Center, 9 Sept. 2004, www.ideacenter.org/contentmgr/showdetails.php/id/1232. Accessed 20 Feb. 2017. Rennie, John. 15 Answers to Creationist Nonsense. Scientific American, 1 July 2002, Nature America, Inc.. www.scientificamerican.com/article/15-answers-to-creationist/. Accessed 20 Feb. 2017. Sarfati, Jonathan, and Michael Mathews. Refuting Evolution 2 Chapter 4: Argument: Natural Selection Leads to Speciation. Creation | Creation Ministries International, Creation Ministries, creation.com/refuting-evolution-2-chapter-4-argument-natural-selection-leads-to-speciation#noteref. Accessed 20 Feb. 2017. Yahya, Harun. Confessions of the Evolutionists. Global Publishing, www.muslim-library.com/dl/books/English_CONFESSIONS_OF_THE_EVOLUTIONISTS.pdf. Accessed 20 Feb. 2017.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Int J Biometeorol (2010) 54:75Ã¢â¬â84 DOI 10. 1007/s00484-009-0256-x ORIGINAL PAPER The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai Jianguo Tan & Youfei Zheng & Xu Tang & Changyi Guo & Liping Li & Guixiang Song & Xinrong Zhen & Dong Yuan & Adam J. Kalkstein & Furong Li & Heng Chen Received: 17 December 2008 / Revised: 29 July 2009 / Accepted: 3 August 2009 / Published online: 1 September 2009 # ISB 2009 Abstract With global warming forecast to continue into the foreseeable future, heat waves are very likely to increase in both frequency and intensity. In urban regions, hese future heat waves will be exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, and will have the potential to negatively influence the health and welfare of urban residents. In order to investigate the health effects of the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai, China, 30 years of meteorological J. Tan (*) : X. Zhen Shanghai Urban Environmental Meteorology Center, 951 Jinxiu Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200135, China e-mail: [emailÃ protected] com Y. Zheng Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science &Technology, Nanjing 210044, China X. TangShanghai Meteorological Bureau, 166 Puxi Road, Shanghai 200030, China C. Guo : G. Song : D. Yuan Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control & Prevention, 1380 ZhongShan West Road, Shanghai 200336, China L. Li : F. Li : H. Chen Injury Prevention Research Centre, Medical College of Shantou University, 22 Xinling Road, Shantou City 515041, Guangdong Province, China A. J. Kalkstein Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY, USA records (1975Ã¢â¬â2004) were examined for 11 first- and second-order weather stations in and around Shanghai.Additionally, automatic weather observation data recorded in recent years as well as daily all-cause summer mortality counts in 11 urban, suburban, and exurban regions (1998Ã¢â ¬â 2004) in Shanghai have been used. The results show that different sites (city center or surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming as a result of increasing urbanization. In turn, this has resulted in a more extensive urban heat island effect, causing additional hot days and heat waves in urban regions compared to rural locales. An examination of summer mortality rates in and aroundShanghai yields heightened heat-related mortality in urban regions, and we conclude that the UHI is directly responsible, acting to worsen the adverse health effects from exposure to extreme thermal conditions. Keywords Global warming . Urban heat island . Heat wave . Human health Introduction In recent years, the impact of weather on human health has become an issue of increased significance, especially considering the potential impacts of global warming and an increased urban heat island effect due to urbanization (Kunst et al. 1993; Kalkstein and Greene 1997; Guest et al. 1999; Sm oyer et al. 2000).Warming of the climate system is unequivocal. The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) clearly indicates that the updated 100-year linear trend (1906Ã¢â¬â2005) of global surface temperature is 0. 74 K. The warming trend over the last 50 years has averaged 0. 13 K per decade and 11 of the last 12 years (1995Ã¢â¬â2006) rank among the 12 warmest years since 1850 (IPCC 2007). A Int J Biometeorol (2010) 54:75Ã¢â¬â84 76 warming climate will likely result in an increase in the frequency and intensity of heat waves (McMichael et al. 1996; Meehl et al. 2001; Patz and Khaliq 2002). The urban heat island (UHI) has become one of the largest roblems associated with the urbanization and industrialization of human civilization, as the increased temperatures associated with the UHI tend to exacerbate the threats to human health posed by thermal stress. As a result, the UHI has been a central theme among climatologists, and it is well documented in many metropolitan areas a round the world (Oke 1973; Katsoulis and Theoharatos 1985; Balling and Cerveny 1987; Lee 1992; Saitoh et al. 1996; Yamashita 1996; Bohm 1998; Figuerola and Mazzeo 1998; Klysik and Fortuniak 1999; Kim and Baik 2002; Wilby 2003). The UHI experienced by many cities is larger at night than uring the day, more pronounced in winter than in summer, and is most apparent when winds are weak. For example, in Beijing, the difference in mean air temperature between the city center and surrounding fields can be as much as 4. 6 K (Zhang et al. 2002; Song and Zhang 2003). This results in additional hot days in urban locales, which can directly influence the health and welfare of city residents. As UHIs are characterized by increased temperature, they can potentially increase the magnitude and duration of heat waves within cities. Scientists have also discovered that the impacts of heat waves on humans vary among ifferent regions within a city. As early as 1972, Buechley et al. (1972) investigated the relationship between the heat island and Ã¢â¬Å"death islandÃ¢â¬ and found that the mortality rate during a heat wave increases exponentially with the maximum temperature, an effect that is enhanced by the UHI. Clarke (1972) revealed that the nighttime effect of UHIs can be particularly harmful during a heat wave, as it deprives urban residents of the cool relief found in rural areas during the night. Thus, during heat waves, death rates are often much higher in cities than in outlying environs (Henschel et al. 1969; Buechley et al. 972; Clarke 1972; Jones et al. 1982; Smoyer 1998). An epidemiologic study of mortality during the summer 2003 heat wave in Italy also illustrated that those living in urban regions have an elevated risk of death compared to those living in suburban or rural areas as a result of heightened urban temperatures (Conti et al. 2005). Unlike purely tropical regions that remain warm all year round, Shanghai experiences a subtropical climate with cold, dry winters and wet, hot summers, as well as a pronounced UHI (Ding et al. 2002; Zhou et al. 2002). Shanghai has been found to be prone to heat-related ortality (Tan et al. 2004, 2007), although few studies have quantitatively or qualitatively examined the impact of the UHI on the frequency or the intensity of heat waves along with its corresponding impact on heat-related mortality among the urban and suburban populations. Thus, the goal of this paper is to determine the influence of the Shanghai UHI on heat waves and human health within both urban and rural locales. Materials and methods The study was carried out over the region of Shanghai, China, which encompasses approximately 6,300 km2, and contains a population listed as slightly over 18 million in 006. In order to capture the effects of urban areas on local climate, 30 years (1975Ã¢â¬â2004) of daily maximum temperature were compiled covering only the summer months, defined here as May through October. These data were examined for 11 first- and second-order weather stations (Fig. 1) and were obtained from the Shanghai Meteorological Bureau. The specific sites in this study are: the urban site (XuHui-58367), suburban sites (MingHang-58361, BaoShan58362, PuDong-58470, JiaDing-58365), and exurban sites (ChongMing-58366, NanHui-58369, JinShan-58460, QinPu58461, SongJiang-58462, FengXian-58463).For each year throughout the 30-year research period, we first examined the yearly extreme maximum temperature (the single hottest day in each year), the mean daily maximum temperature in midsummer (defined as July through August), and the number of hot days (defined as days exceeding 35Ã °C in Tmax) for each of the 11 stations. Simple linear regression was used to discern overall trends in the data, and the statistical significance of these trends was assessed (Table 1). The number of hot days, as well as heat wave duration at urban, suburban, and exurban sites, are listed in Table 2.The UHI intensity is typically de fined as the temperature difference (? T) between the urban (u), suburban (s), and exurban (e) locations. This is described in terms of the difference in daily maximum temperature between the urban center and suburban sites (? Tu-s), and that between urban center and the exurban stations (? Tu-e). The observed values of urban, suburban, and exurban sites were represented by the temperature from the urban site (XuHui station), the average of four suburban stations (MinHang, BaoShan, PuDong, JiaDing), and the average temperature from the exurban stations (ChongMing,NanHui, JinShan, QingPu, SongJiang and FengXian), respectively. The UHI intensity of each site (? Ti) is calculated by the temperature difference between the urban site (XuHui station) and each suburban or exurban site as follows: $Ti ? Tmax0 A Tmaxi While Tmax0 is the daily maximum temperature at the urban site, Tmaxi is the daily maximum temperature at the suburban or exurban site. In order to investigate the diurnal Int J Biometeorol (2010) 54:75Ã¢â¬â84 77 Fig. 1 Shanghai within China and the spatial distribution of 11 weather stations across Shanghai variation of the UHI intensity, the temperature difference etween the urban (XuHui), suburban (JiaDing), and exurban (ChongMing, FengXian, JinShan, SongJiang) sites are calculated from automatic weather stations from June through August, 2005Ã¢â¬â2007. The observed variations in the urban heat island effect have been plotted in Figs. 2, 3, and 4. Here, a Ã¢â¬Å"hot dayÃ¢â¬ is defined as a day with a daily maximum temperature exceeding 35Ã °C in at least 1 of the 11 sites in Shanghai. Days below this threshold were categorized as Ã¢â¬Å"non-heat days. Ã¢â¬ Additionally, a heat wave is defined as a period with at least three consecutive hot days. Although this definition is somewhat arbitrary, it was hosen to correspond with the Chinese Meteorological Administration heat warnings, which are issued when maximum temperatures are forecast to e xceed 35Ã °C. Furthermore, with the assumption that each meteorological Table 1 The rates of increase and linear regression results by year for annual extreme maximum temperature, mean maximum temperature in mid-summer (JulÃ¢â¬âAug), and hot days at urban, suburban, and exurban sites Sites Yearly extreme maximum temperature Mean maximum temperature in mid-summer (JulÃ¢â¬âAug) Hot days Rate of increase (K / year) Urban Suburban Exurban XuHui MinHang BaoShan PuDong JiaDing QingPuChongMing NanHui JinShan SongJiang FengXian R2 p Rate of increase (K / year) R2 p Rate of increase (days / year) R2 p 0. 085 0. 049 0. 066 0. 067 0. 062 0. 051 0. 035 0. 029 0. 013 0. 034 0. 009 0. 389 0. 172 0. 271 0. 204 0. 241 0. 158 0. 090 0. 053 0. 013 0. 076 0. 004 0. 0001 0. 0181 0. 0022 0. 0095 0. 0043 0. 0244 0. 0918 0. 2053 0. 5409 0. 1276 0. 7196 0. 073 0. 051 0. 054 0. 054 0. 049 0. 045 0. 038 0. 028 0. 024 0. 034 0. 020 0. 240 0. 150 0. 136 0. 158 0. 128 0. 112 0. 082 0. 064 0. 042 0. 070 0 . 030 0. 0044 0. 0282 0. 0376 0. 0240 0. 0448 0. 0609 0. 1138 0. 1623 0. 2603 0. 1442 0. 3408 0. 64 0. 29 0. 40 . 34 0. 41 0. 28 0. 10 0. 09 0. 07 0. 20 0. 08 0. 388 0. 168 0. 278 0. 279 0. 272 0. 161 0. 070 0. 074 0. 026 0. 090 0. 036 0. 0001 0. 0197 0. 0019 0. 0018 0. 0021 0. 0229 0. 1427 0. 1305 0. 3817 0. 0952 0. 2950 Statistically significant slopes at 95% confidence level (p ? 0. 05) are in bold Int J Biometeorol (2010) 54:75Ã¢â¬â84 78 Table 2 The average number of hot days and the occurrence of different heat wave durations at urban, suburban, and exurban sites in Shanghai (1975Ã¢â¬â2004) Sites Hot days (days / year) Heat wave duration ?3 days XuHui MinHang BaoShan PuDong JiaDing QingPu ChongMing NanHui JinShan SongJiangFengXian Exurban observation site represents its entire area or district, we classify days in which more than eight of the sites experienced maximum temperatures above 35Ã °C as Ã¢â¬Å"largescale hot daysÃ¢â¬ , thus covering 59. 6Ã¢â¬â82. 6% of the total area of Shanghai. The consistency of hot day occurrence among the 11 sites has been plotted in Fig. 5. All deaths recorded between 1998 and 2004 for all regions of Shanghai were obtained from the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention. These data consist of the daily mortality totals of each district for all causes of death and cover the summer study period.Excess deaths are calculated by subtracting a baseline death rate from the observed daily mortality value. Numerous methods have been identified in the literature for calculating the baseline mortality (Gosling et al. 2009), and here, we adopt a 30-day moving average for the same year (Rooney et al. 1998; Dessai 2002, 2003; Gosling et al. 2007). >10 days 18 12 11 8 9 9 5 2 6 8 2 9 4 8 1 5 4 2 1 3 4 2 5 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Results Warming trends at the urban, suburban and exurban sites As demonstrated in Table 1, there are different linear arming trends in the different areas (city center, suburban, an d exurban areas) of Shanghai over the last 30 years (1975Ã¢â¬â2004), covering the yearly extreme maximum temperature, the average maximum temperature from July through August, and the number of hot days during the 2 Tu-s 1. 5 1 0. 5 0 May Tu-s ?7 days 39 25 22 18 27 26 9 7 14 21 8 11. 2 7. 4 7. 5 5. 2 7. 6 7. 7 3. 1 2. 7 5. 2 6. 4 3. 7 Heat Island Intensity ( K ) Urban Suburban ?5 days Tu-e June July 1. 4 Tu-e 1. 2 1 0. 8 0. 6 0. 4 y = -0. 001x 2 + 0. 0523x + 0. 1132 R2 = 0. 6951 0. 2 0 1975 October 2. 00 y = 2E-05x 2 + 0. 0411x + 0. 147 R2 = 0. 7704 1979 1983 987 1991 Year 1995 1999 2003 Fig. 2 The variation of urban heat island intensity [in terms of the difference of daily maximum temperature between the urban center and suburban sites (? Tu-s), and that between urban and exurban (? Tu-e) sites] from 1975 to 2004 Heat Island Intensity ( K ) Heat Island Intensity (K) 1. 6 September Month 2 1. 8 August -0. 5 1. 50 1. 00 0. 50 0. 00 May June July August September October -0. 50 M onth Fig. 3 The mean heat island intensity [in terms of the difference of daily maximum temperature between the urban center and suburban sites (? Tu-s), and that between urban and exurban stations (?Tu-e)] by month from 1975 through 2004. Error bars indicate Ã ±1 SD Int J Biometeorol (2010) 54:75Ã¢â¬â84 79 Fig. 4 The diurnal variation of the temperature difference between the city center (XuHui) and suburban(JiaDing), and various exurban sites (ChongMing, FengXian, JinShan, SongJiang) over 24 h in summer (JuneÃ¢â¬âAugust, 2005Ã¢â¬â2007) summer. Significant trends, using a 95% confidence level (p 35Ã °C) and the proportion of largescale hot days (>35Ã °C at eight or more stations) during the five hottest years on record the urban center and the suburban sites (? Tu-s), and that between the urban center and the exurban sites (? Tu-e) Fig. 2). From the 1970s to the mid-1980s, the UHI was much less pronounced, with an average difference in daily maximum summer temperature o f 0. 2Ã¢â¬â0. 4 K between the city center and its surroundings. However, these temperature differences increased during the period of study, particularly between the city center and the exurban locations. In fact, beginning in the mid-1980s, there is a distinct deviation between the UHI intensities of the exurban and the suburban sites. While the temperature difference of urban-exurban areas rose further to 1. 6 K, differences between the urban and suburban sites remained at approximately 0. K. This disparity is likely due to the rapid expansion of Shanghai into the suburban regions beginning in the mid-1980s. The UHI intensity was strongest in July during the summer months, where the average UHI intensity reached 0. 9 K between urban and exurban areas (? Tu-e), and 0. 6 K between urban and suburban areas (? Tu-s) (Fig. 3). Furthermore, the diurnal variation of the heat island intensity derived from the six automatic weather stations located in the urban (XuHui), suburban (JiaDin g), and exurban sites (ChongMing, FengXian, JinShan, SongJiang) in summer (June through August), 2005Ã¢â¬â2007, shows that he heat island intensity is more pronounced in the daytime than that in the night (Fig. 4). The highest value in the region of 0. 5Ã¢â¬â2. 0 K occurs at noon or in the afternoon, corresponding approximately to the time in which the daily maximum temperature is reached. The urban heat island and heat waves As a result of increased temperatures within the urban locales, the UHI may affect the number of hot days as well as the duration of heat waves, potentially increasing the risk of mortality from heat stress. The yearly average number of hot days and the total number of heat waves with different urations over the research period (1975Ã¢â¬â2004) at different locations in Shanghai are listed in Table 2. Not surprisingly, the largest average value of annual hot days is 11. 2 days per year in the urban site (XuHui), while fewer hot days occur in the exurban sites such as ChongMing, NanHui, or FengXian. Similarly, heat wave duration is also impacted by the UHI, so that the longest duration heat waves (for example, a heat wave with at least 10 consecutive hot days) usually occurred in the urban area. There were five such events at the urban location (XuHui) with only one event recorded t the suburban stations (MinXing, BaoShan, JiaDing). In order to discern whether increasing numbers of hot days are attributable to a regional climate warming or to an expanding UHI, we examined the five hottest years (1978, 1983, 1988, 1998, and 2003) and analyzed the consistency of hot day occurrence among the 11 sites. This was done to 80 determine the frequency of Ã¢â¬Å"large-scale hot daysÃ¢â¬ in the investigation area during these years. Figure 5 illustrates a decreasing trend of the proportion of the large-scale hot days corresponding with an increasing number of hot days. For example, at least 1 of the 11 stations in Shanghai eported a hot day 16 times in 1983, and among these there were 13 large-scale hot days, accounting for 81. 3%. In 2003, however, there were 45 hot days reported but only 29. 5% of these were large-scale hot days. Thus, it seems that the growing UHI increases the number of hot days around the city center, but large-scale hot days are not increasing. This provides strong evidence that the warming is local in nature, caused almost entirely by the UHI, and not as a result of a larger, regional warming pattern. The urban heat island and excess death The relationships between heat and human health are ummarized in Table 3, which illustrates the excess mortality rate, the number of heat waves, and the average maximum temperature for each heat wave from 1998 to 2004 in each region. Population-adjusted excess mortality in each region, along with UHI intensity, has been plotted for each year in Fig. 6. The excess deaths in the central urban region are higher than those in the suburban and exurban sites, which coincide well with heat island intensity, especially in the two severe heat waves in 1998 and 2003 (Tan et al. 2004, 2007). For example, with the 1998 heat wave, the excess mortality rate in the urban area is about 27. /100,000, compared to only 7/100,000 in the exurban districts. Furthermore, a comparison between excess deaths and the spatial coverage of the two heat waves in 1998 and 2003 (Fig. 7) shows that the extent of high temperatures played an important role in the number of excess deaths. In general, the more stations that reported hot days, the higher the number of excess deaths. In 1998, Shanghai experienced long duration, large-scale hot days with more than nine districts experiencing temperatures above 35Ã °C for nine consecutive days from August 8 to 16. As a result, excess deaths increased sharply with a maximum value of 53 deaths observed on August 16. On the other hand, in 2003, there were frequent hot days, often with a large number of consecutive days, but these heat waves were not often experienced by a large number of stations. Thus, the spatial coverage of the 2003 event was much smaller than that observed in 1998, resulting in fewer deaths. Discussion The urban heat island effect is among the most welldocumented impacts of human activity on local climate. As Int J Biometeorol (2010) 54:75Ã¢â¬â84 large-scale climate change continues, the UHI is very likely to exacerbate the warming, resulting in more frequent and ore intense heat waves (Wilby 2003). Research on the UHI has typically focused on tropical or mid-latitude cities for the dual purposes of understanding the dynamics of the energy balance in the urban boundary layer and its application to issues related to urban pollution, energy conservation, and the prevention of heat-related health problems or deaths (Buechley et al. 1972; Smoyer 1998). Here, the comparison between meteorological monitoring stations both inside and around the city of Shanghai revealed the large impact of the urban heat island effect on temperature, heat waves, and human health.The results demonstrate that the meteorological sites (city center and its surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming over the period of record as a direct result of increasing urbanization and a more pronounced heat island. Additionally, we find that the hottest days (above 35Ã °C), as well as prolonged heat waves, are more likely to occur in urban locales. The UHI is often referred to as a nighttime phenomenon with the highest values of the UHI intensity occurring between midnight and early morning, especially in winter. This has been documented in the United States, Italy, and eyond (Basu and Samet 2002; deÃ¢â¬â¢Donato et al. 2008), highlighting that the major differences between urban and rural areas were measured during the night. However, for Shanghai, our results show that the heat island is often more pronounced in the daytime during the summer, with the highest urbanÃ¢â¬ârural d ifferences ranging from 0. 5 to 2. 0 K at noon or in the afternoon, coinciding with the timing of maximum daily temperature. The increased thermal loads found in urban areas may be a direct factor for heightened levels of human mortality (Clarke and Bach 1971; Jones et al. 1982; Conti et al. 2005).Additionally, previous studies note that virtually all causes of mortality increase during extreme heat waves, including respiratory failure and circulatory system failure from heart attack or stroke. The results of this study demonstrate that heat-related mortality (all-cause deaths above the baseline) is often much higher in the inner city than in outlying environs during heat waves, coinciding with heat island intensity. Inhabitants of urban areas may experience sustained thermal stress both day and night as city surfaces often heat up quickly during the day but are slow to cool at night (Sheridan and Dolney 2003).There is emerging evidence that the urban population shows greater sensit ivity to heat compared to those in rural regions. For example, analyses of the 1995 Chicago heat wave have shown that the relative risk for a heat-related hospital admission in the city was nearly two times higher compared to the suburbs (Rydman et al. 1999). Similar results were found in 2003, where heat wave mortality was greater in 2 20/7Ã¢â¬â 24/7 36. 1 ?2. 51 2 19/7Ã¢â¬â 31/7 36. 5 0. 93 4 22/8Ã¢â¬â 26/8 36. 1 2. 57 4 19/7Ã¢â¬â 6/8 36. 6 4. 32 2 16/7Ã¢â¬â 31/7 36. 2 3. 33 Heat waves Longest duration Tmax(Ã °C) Excess mortality rate (1/100,000)Heat waves Longest duration Tmax(Ã °C) Excess mortality rate (1/100,000) Heat waves Longest duration Tmax(Ã °C) Excess mortality rate (1/100,000) Heat waves Longest duration Tmax(Ã °C) Excess mortality rate (1/100,000) Heat waves Longest duration Tmax(Ã °C) Excess mortality rate (1/100,000) 2000 2004 2003 2002 2001 1999 3 7/8Ã¢â¬â17/8 36. 8 27. 30 0 Heat waves Longest duration Tmax(Ã °C) Excess mortality rate (1/100 ,000) Heat waves Longest duration Tmax(Ã °C) Excess mortality rate (1/100,000) 1998 Urban Item Year 36 5. 60 36. 1 6. 39 2 19/7Ã¢â¬â 31/7 4 28/7Ã¢â¬â 3/8 2 20/7Ã¢â¬â 24/7 35. 3 2. 29 3 25/7Ã¢â¬â 29/7 35. 7 ?0. 89 0 2 8/8Ã¢â¬â 17/8 6. 9 18. 20 0 MinHang 35. 8 ?0. 23 36. 9 5. 85 3 17/7Ã¢â¬â 7/30 2 21/7Ã¢â¬â 29/7 1 20/7Ã¢â¬â 23/7 36. 8 ?0. 25 1 28/6Ã¢â¬â 2/7 36. 1 2. 29 0 2 7/8Ã¢â¬â 15/8 36. 4 18. 99 1 9/9Ã¢â¬â 11/9 35. 3 0. 40 BaoShan 35. 9 1. 00 36 1. 64 3 20/7Ã¢â¬â 25/7 2 20/7Ã¢â¬â 24/7 35. 7 0. 91 2 28/6Ã¢â¬â 2/7 36. 1 0. 95 1 14/7Ã¢â¬â 16/7 36. 4 0. 41 4 19/7Ã¢â¬â 25/7 1 8/8Ã¢â¬â 16/8 37 15. 82 0 PuDong 36. 2 2. 89 36. 3 17. 39 3 17/7Ã¢â¬â 1/8 4 19/7Ã¢â¬â 4/8 1 20/7 Ã¢â¬â 23/7 36 0. 41 3 28/6Ã¢â¬â 2/7 36. 2 4. 82 0 1 8/8Ã¢â¬â 16/8 36. 4 13. 08 0 JiaDing 35. 8 ?0. 57 35. 7 1. 42 2 20/7Ã¢â¬â 25/7 1 25/7Ã¢â¬â 29/7 0 0 0 1 8/8Ã¢â¬â 15/8 35. 9 9. 21 0 ChongMing 0 0 0 0 0 2 10/8Ã¢â¬â 16/8 36. 2 12. 81 0 NanHu iTable 3 Summary statistics of excess mortality rate and mean maximum temperature in heat waves, broken down by region and year 36. 2 3. 41 0 2 28/7Ã¢â¬â 30/7 1 21/7Ã¢â¬â 24/7 35. 4 0. 94 1 29/6Ã¢â¬â 2/7 36. 1 1. 89 0 1 8/8Ã¢â¬â 17/8 36. 3 8. 01 0 JinShan 36 0. 22 36. 6 5. 89 2 17/7Ã¢â¬â 31/7 4 28/7Ã¢â¬â 3/8 1 21/7Ã¢â¬â 23/7 35. 9 1. 09 2 28/6Ã¢â¬â 3/7 36. 4 2. 85 0 2 7/8Ã¢â¬â 16/8 36. 5 12. 51 0 QingPu 36. 5 ?0. 39 27/8Ã¢â¬â 30/8 35. 9 0. 00 1 23/7Ã¢â¬â 25/7 36. 2 1. 56 1 28/7Ã¢â¬â 4/8 36. 2 3. 16 2 17/7Ã¢â¬â 31/7 0 0 0 2 9/8Ã¢â¬â 16/8 35. 8 7. 00 0 FengXian 3 1 21/7Ã¢â¬â 24/7 35. 8 0. 20 1 29/6Ã¢â¬â 1/7 36. 1 3. 82 0 1 8/8Ã¢â¬â 17/8 36. 4 18. 15 0 SongJiang Int J Biometeorol (2010) 54:75Ã¢â¬â84 1 Int J Biometeorol (2010) 54:75Ã¢â¬â84 82 30 exposure to heat in the city center, resulting in elevated levels of heat-related mortality in urban regions. This study was subject to several limitations. First, many approaches such as absolute threshold temperature (Huynen et al. 2001), relative threshold temperature (Hajat et al. 2002), and synoptic climatological approaches (Sheridan 2002; Sheridan and Kalkstein 2004) can also be used to define heat waves. Although our definition is somewhat arbitrary, it was chosen to correspond with the Chinese Meteorological AdministrationÃ¢â¬â¢s heat warnings, which are ssued when maximum temperatures are forecast to exceed 35Ã °C. Thus, Chinese residents are more familiar with the definition used here. Second, the effects of the UHI on heat-related mortality are multifaceted, and we did not examine data measuring air pollution, other meteorological factors such as cloud cover or humidity, or the potential impacts of socioeconomic status or other social variables. Therefore, no confounding effects were evaluated. Previous research indicates that human mortality is impacted by both ambient meteorological conditions and atmospheric pollutant levels.The stagnant atmospheric conditions common during heat waves can trap pollutants in urban areas, exacerbating the negative impacts of the heat wave 1998 2000 2001 20 2003 15 2004 10 5 0 -5 3. 5 4 4. 5 Fig. 6 The excess mortality rate and the heat island intensity for heat waves in Shanghai urban regions compared to suburban areas in Switzerland (Grize et al. 2005). Our previous investigation revealed that observed differences in heat-related mortality between two severe heat waves in 1998 and 2003 could be traced to the longevity of the heat; prolonged exposure to heat is more stressful to human health than isolated hot days (Tan et al. 007). Here, we confirm that the UHI serves to enhance the prolonged (a) 1998 20 500 The number of the sites with Tmax? 35Ã °C The number of the sites with Tmax? 35Ã °C 16 400 excess deaths 300 8 200 4 100 0 0 9-8 9-12 9-4 8-31 8-27 8-23 8-19 8-15 8-7 8-11 8-3 7-30 7-26 7-22 7-18 7-14 6-28 -200 6-24 -8 6-20 -100 6-16 -4 excess deaths 12 Date (b) 2003 500 20 The number of t he sites with Tmax? 35Ã °C 16 The number of the sites with Tmax? 35Ã °C 400 excess deaths 300 8 200 4 100 0 0 Date 9-12 9-8 9-4 8-31 8-27 8-23 8-19 8-15 8-11 8-7 8-3 7-30 7-26 7-22 -200 6-28 -8 6-24 -100 6-20 -4 excess deaths 12 6-16 Fig. 7 The number of excess eaths versus the number of stations reporting hot days during the summers of 1998 (a) and 2003 (b) 7-18 3 7-14 2. 5 7-6 2 7-10 1. 5 Urban Heat Island Intensity(K) 7-10 1 7-2 0. 5 7-6 0 7-2 excess mortality(1/100000) 25 Int J Biometeorol (2010) 54:75Ã¢â¬â84 (Anderson et al. 1996; Piver et al. 1999; Johnson et al. 2005). Air pollution such as ozone and PM10 compound the heatÃ¢â¬âmortality relationship, and previous research suggests that between 21 and 38% of the excess deaths observed during the summer 2003 European heat wave were attributable to these pollutants (Stedman 2004). However, it remains difficult to separate the impacts of eat and pollution on human health, and it is possible that some of the heightened urb an mortality totals in this study were partially a result of elevated concentrations of airborne pollutants found in the city center. Conclusion There is no doubt that the urban heat island (UHI) has a profound impact on human health. The UHI serves to enhance the intensity of heat waves, which in turn adversely affects human health due to an increased exposure to extreme thermal conditions. As a result, heatrelated mortality is found to be higher in the city center compared to suburban locales. This research provides vidence that Shanghai local officials should be cognizant of the increased thermal loads experienced in urban regions and take appropriate action to help reduce the impact of heat on the population. Acknowledgements This material is based upon work supported by The Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30771846), Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster (No. KLME05005), National Scientific and Technical supporting Programs, Ministry of Science and Technolog y of China (No. 2006BAK13B06), and the Gong-Yi Program of China Meteorological Administration (No. GY200706019). Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for their omments on an earlier version of the manuscript. References Anderson HR, Ponce de Leon A, Bland MJ et al (1996) Air pollution and daily mortality in London: 1987Ã¢â¬â92. Br Med J 312:665Ã¢â¬â669 Balling RC, Cerveny RS (1987) Long-term associations between wind speeds and urban heat island of Phoenix, Arizona. J Climatol Appl Meteorol 26:712Ã¢â¬â716 Basu R, Samet JM (2002) An exposure assessment study of ambient heat exposure in an elderly population in Baltimore, Maryland. Environ Health Perspect 110:1219Ã¢â¬â1224 Bohm R (1998) Urban bias in temperature time series Ã¢â¬â a case study for the city Vienna, Austria. Clim Change 38:113Ã¢â¬â128Buechley RW, Van Bruggen J, Truppi LE (1972) Heat island equals death island? Environ Res 5(1):85Ã¢â¬â92 Clarke JF (1972) Some effects of the urban structure on heat mort ality. Environ Res 5:93Ã¢â¬â104 Clarke JF, Bach W (1971) Comparison of the comfort conditions in different urban and suburban microenvironments. Int J Biometeorol 15(1):41Ã¢â¬â54 83 Conti S, Meli P, Minelli G et al (2005) Epidemiologic study of mortality during the Summer 2003 heat wave in Italy. Environ Res 98(3):390Ã¢â¬â399 deÃ¢â¬â¢Donato F, Stafoggia M, Rognoni M et al (2008) Airport and citycentre temperatures in the evaluation of the association between heat and mortality.Int J Biometeorol 52(4):301Ã¢â¬â310 Dessai S (2002) Heat stress and mortality in Lisbon part I. Model construction and validation. Int J Biometeorol 47:6Ã¢â¬â12 Dessai S (2003) Heat stress and mortality in Lisbon part II. An assessment of the potential impacts of climate change. Int J Biometeorol 48:37Ã¢â¬â44 Ding JC, Zhang ZK, Xi H et al (2002) A study of the high temperature distribution and the heat island effect in the summer of the Shanghai Area. Chin J Atmos Sci 26(3):412Ã¢â¬â420 ( in Chinese) Figuerola PI, Mazzeo N (1998) Urban-rural temperature differences in Buenos Aires. Int J Climatol 18:1709Ã¢â¬â1723Gosling SN, McGregor GR, Paldy A (2007) Climate change and heatrelated mortality in six cities part1: model construction and validation. Int J Biometeorol 51:525Ã¢â¬â540 Gosling SN, Lowe JA, McGregor GR (2009) Associations between elevated atmospheric temperature and human mortality: a critical review of the literature. Clim Change 92:299Ã¢â¬â341 Grize L, Huss A, Thommen O et al (2005) Heat wave 2003 and mortality in Switzerland. Swiss Med Wkly 135:200Ã¢â¬â205 Guest CS, Willson K, Woodward AJ et al (1999) Climate and mortality in Australia: retrospective study, 1979Ã¢â¬â1990, and predicted impacts in five major cities in 2030.Clim Res 13:1Ã¢â¬â15 Hajat S, Kovats RS, Atkinson RW et al (2002) Impact of hot temperatures on death in London: a time series approach. J Epidemiol Community Health 56:367Ã¢â¬â372 Henschel A, Burton LL, Margolies L et al (1969) An analysis of the heat deaths in St. Louis during July, 1966. Am J Public Health Nations Health 59:2232Ã¢â¬â2242 Huynen MMTE, Martens P, Schram D et al (2001) The impact of heat waves and cold spells on mortality rates in the Dutch population. Environ Health Perspect 109:463Ã¢â¬â470 IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. In: Alley R et al (eds) Fourth assessment report of working group I.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Johnson H, Kovats RS, McGregor G et al (2005) The impact of the 2003 heat wave on daily mortality in England and Wales and the use of rapid weekly mortality estimates. Eurosurveillance 10:168Ã¢â¬â171 Jones TS, Liang AP, Kilbourne EM et al (1982) Morbidity and mortality associated with the July 1980 heat wave in St. Louis and Kansas City, Mo. J Am Med Assoc 247:3327Ã¢â¬â3331 Kalkstein LS, Greene JS (1997) An evaluation of climate/mortality relationships in large U. S. cities and the possible impacts of a climate cha nge. Environ Health Perspect 105:84Ã¢â¬â93Katsoulis BD, Theoharatos GA (1985) Indications of the urban heat island in Athens, Greece. J Clim Appl Meteorol 24:1296Ã¢â¬â1302 Kim YH, Baik JJ (2002) Maximum urban heat island intensity in Seoul. J Appl Meteorol 41:651Ã¢â¬â659 Klysik K, Fortuniak K (1999) Temporal and spatial characteristics of the urban heat island of Lodz, Poland. Atmos Environ 33:3885Ã¢â¬â 3895 Kunst AE, Looman CWN, Mackenbach JP (1993) Outdoor air temperature and mortality in the Netherlands: a time-series analysis. Am J Epidemiol 137:331Ã¢â¬â341 Lee D (1992) Urban warming? An analysis of recent trends in LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s heat island. Weather 47:50Ã¢â¬â60McMichael A, Haines A, Slooff R et al (1996) Climate change and human health. WHO, Geneva Meehl GA, Zwiers F, Evans J et al (2001) Trends in extreme weather and climate events: issues related to modeling extremes in projections of future climate change. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 81:427Ã¢â¬â436 84 Oke TR (1973) City size and the urban heat island. Atmos Environ 7:769Ã¢â¬â779 Patz JA, Khaliq M (2002) Global climate change and health: challenges for future practitioners. J Am Med Assoc 287:2283Ã¢â¬â 2284 Piver WT, Ando M, Ye F et al (1999) Temperature and air pollution as risk factors for heat stroke in Tokyo, July and August 1980Ã¢â¬â 1995.Environ Health Perspect 107:911Ã¢â¬â916 Rooney C, McMichael AJ, Kovats RS (1998) Excess mortality in England and Wales, and in Greater London, during the 1995 heatwave. J Epidemiol Community Health 52:482Ã¢â¬â486 Rydman RJ, Rumoro DP, Silva JC et al (1999) The rate and risk of heat-related illness in hospital emergency departments during the 1995 Chicago heat disaster. J Med Syst 23:41Ã¢â¬â56 Saitoh TS, Shimada T, Hoshi H (1996) Modelling and simulation of the Tokyo urban heat island. Atmos Environ 30:3431Ã¢â¬â3442 Sheridan SC (2002) The redevelopment of a weather-type classification scheme for North America.Int J Climatol 22: 51Ã¢â¬â68 Sheridan SC, Dolney TJ (2003) Heat, mortality, and level of urbanization: measuring vulnerability across Ohio, US. Clim Res 24:255Ã¢â¬â266 Sheridan SC, Kalkstein LS (2004) Progress in heat watch-warning system technology. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 85:1931Ã¢â¬â1941 Smoyer KE (1998) Putting risk in its place: methodological considerations for investigating extreme event health risk. Soc Sci Med 47:1809Ã¢â¬â1824 Int J Biometeorol (2010) 54:75Ã¢â¬â84 Smoyer KE, Rainham DGC, Hewko JN (2000) Heat-stress-related mortality in five cities in Southern Ontario:1980Ã¢â¬â1996. Int J Biometeorol 44:190Ã¢â¬â197Song YL, Zhang SY (2003) The study on heat island effect in Beijing during last 40 years. Chin J Eco-Agric 11(4):126Ã¢â¬â129 (in Chinese) Stedman JR (2004) The predicted number of air pollution related deaths in the UK during the August 2003 heatwave. Atmos Environ 38:1087Ã¢â¬â1090 Tan J, Kalkstein LS, Huang J et al (2004) An operational heat/health warning sy stem in Shanghai. Int J Biometeorol 48:157Ã¢â¬â162 Tan J, Zheng Y, Song G et al (2007) Heat wave impacts on mortality in Shanghai, 1998 and 2003. Int J Biometeorol 51(3):193Ã¢â¬â200 Wilby RL (2003) Past and projected trends in LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s urban island.Weather 58:251Ã¢â¬â260 Yamashita S (1996) Detailed structure of heat island phenomena from moving observations from electric tram-cars in metropolitan Tokyo. Atmos Environ 30:429Ã¢â¬â435 Zhang GZ, Xu XD, Wang JZ et al (2002) A study of characteristics and evolution of urban heat island over Beijing and its surrounding area. J Appl Meteorol Sci 13:43Ã¢â¬â49 (in Chinese) Zhou HM, Ding JC, Xu YM et al (2002) The monitoring and evaluation of relation between heat island effect and greenbelt distribution in Shanghai urban area. Acta Agric Shanghai 18:83Ã¢â¬â 88 (in Chinese)
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Social Media Ã¢â¬â A Blessing or a Curse Good [time] everybody. Today, I am going to discuss the benefits of social media but I shall also address the issues, as you would ve seen if you have added me as a Facebook friend. The idea of social media is a new one; The first recognisable one was created in 1997 but it was 2 years later that the first blogging sites became truly popular. From here, the social media tree has branched out, allowing us to develop new meanings for words such as follow or tweet and to gather newer terms like reblog and has given us access to instant messaging, allowing all users to connect easily. Sounds rather great, doesn t it? Connecting with friends and family or blogging about your fancy dinner that your partner took you out to is not the only thing that happens on these websites. Cyberbullying is an issue that plagues our world, and it is estimated that 22 million students experienced it in 2011. 3.9% of these people reported being cyberbullied every single day. 1 in 6 teens say they have been contacted online by someone they did not know in a way that made them scared or uncomfortable. With 95% of all teenagers on social media, there are millions of targets for these online bullies. A couple of you might be surprised to hear that this goes on. I m sure you weren t aware that whilst you were catching up with Geraldine who you haven t spoken to since secondary school, a teenager is possibly being bullied to literal